They say that underfloor heating is almost cooler than radiators. These rumors are exaggerated. The benefit of such heating is comfort. Want to keep your feet warm? Read how a home heated floor is connected on water and electricity.
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How a warm floor is connected: general rules for all types
Additional heating can be water and electric; in the second category, joules are given by wires or film. More often, such systems are installed next to the bathroom, in bathrooms, kitchens, nurseries, on balconies for additional heating. It will not be possible to completely abandon radiators in a private house. If the frost hits -20, the warm floor is unlikely to be able to heat the housing normally.
General connection principles:
- Planning. Before buying a warm floor, measure the area on which it will be installed, take into account its configuration.
- Insulation is laid under the pipes, cable or film. In any case, it is necessary to protect the structure from unnecessary heat loss.
- Fixation of heating elements.
- Adjusting the temperature of the heating elements, taking into account the restrictions associated with the flooring.
- Preliminary performance monitoring before pouring the DSP screed or laying light cladding without concreting.
- Ability to integrate into an advanced smart home system.
Next, we will talk about how to connect underfloor heating, depending on the heating elements.
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How to connect underfloor heating to the heating system
Residents of the private sector usually choose a water floor because it has no competitors in terms of durability. No permits are required for its installation in the house, because in case of an accident, do not flood anyone. The main difficulty of installation is that the temperature in the additional circuit should be around 40 degrees, and in the radiators – 60 ° C and above. How to connect a warm floor to the heating system circuit, taking into account temperature restrictions?
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Selecting a connection scheme
The following options are possible:
- From the boiler through the collector without additional equipment. In this case, it may be difficult to adjust the temperature. The only element that you can use for this is a valve that restricts the movement of water through the pipes.
- Diagram with 3-way valve and pump. In the mixer, hot water is diluted with cold water from the return.
- Scheme with a pump and a thermal valve. The intensity of mixing water from the inlet and return depends on the readings of the temperature sensor.
- Diagram with 2-way valve. There is no mixing of water. When a certain temperature is reached, the supply of coolant to the additional circuit is suspended. After cooling down, it restarts.
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In principle, the system can be connected to any boiler, but the efficiency of the additional circuit depends on the type of unit. The worst option is a solid fuel boiler, the best is a gas condensing boiler that produces water at a suitable temperature and does not require a mixing unit. A gas or electric unit is also suitable. It is worth noting that underfloor heating is often installed a few years after the installation of the heating system. The boiler is usually not changed for this.
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Additional contour pie
- First of all, a layer of waterproofing is laid on the base. It will not allow the insulation to become damp due to temperature differences.
- The next layer is insulation, which prevents heat from escaping down.
- Pipes are fixed, for example, with a reinforcing mesh.
- Water communications are poured with a screed with a thickness of 40 mm or more. Before concrete is poured, the fully installed floor is checked for leaks.
- The cladding is laid on the screed.
Installation can take up to 2-3 weeks, as the concrete screed needs to harden.
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How to connect an electric underfloor heating
A lot depends on the specifics of the installation. To understand how to connect a new electric underfloor heating, you need to understand the types of additional heating. The cable is:
- Single core. This option is used for heating non-residential buildings. It is difficult for one dwelling to provide uniform heating of the entire area. Installation requires skills, both ends of the cable must be brought to the thermostat.
- Two-core. An option in which it is easier to fix the cable yourself. Only one end needs to be connected to the thermostat.
Underfloor heating can be purchased:
- In bays, the cable from which is unwound and laid in a coil or spiral, a hybrid scheme is possible. A warm floor in bays is an opportunity to bring heating into any niche, circle a ledge, for example, in the form of a bath or toilet. When laying the cable, the cable must not cross; a distance of several centimeters between the sections must be observed. Otherwise, it will overheat.
- An alternative option is heating elements in the form of mats. Mats are easier to install because you do not need to keep track of the distance between the cable loops. Manufacturers simplify fixing to the base by using self-adhesive floors.
- Films are a separate story, they will be discussed in the section on infrared heating.
If you need to heat a large area – lay out several heating circuits. Thermal sensors are placed approximately at the same distance between cable sections.
- reinforcing mesh or tape for fixing the cable;
- cable laying from the connection point to the thermostat;
- laying the temperature sensor in the corrugation, which will provide the possibility of replacing it in the event of a breakdown without dismantling the floor covering;
- connection of a thermostat;
- checking floor resistance with a multimeter;
- pouring screed;
- lining device.
The installation algorithm is similar to the water circuit, only the concrete layer can be thinner than 40 mm. In principle, laying wires in tile adhesive is allowed. Instead of tiles on top, there can be any other floor covering.
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Paving spacing calculation
Before mounting and connecting the underfloor heating, it will be useful to calculate the laying step. For this, 2 formulas are used:
- H u003d (S laying x 100) / L, where L is the cable length in meters;
- H u003d (Mpog x 100) / Mood, where Mpog is the linear power in W / m, Mode is the specific power in W / m2.
Cable DEVI Flex 22 m is installed in the bathroom. The laying area is 2.5 m2.
N = (2.5×100)/22 = 11.4 cm
Cable ADSV FENIX 10 W/m. We chose a power of 110 W / m2.
H = (10×100)/110 = 9.1 cm
Sometimes, for ease of installation, a step is chosen that is a multiple of, for example, 2.5 cm. In this case, instead of 11.4 cm, you can choose 10, reducing the heating area. Or alternate intervals of 10 and 12.5 cm. With an increase in the step, the power of the square decreases. meters of the heating circuit. Example:
In the table, a constant and a variable laying step goes through the line. In the second case, the distances between the turns of the cable alternate.
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Connecting a warm floor to a thermostat
What is one of the strengths of the electric field? It is easier to control the temperature of the heating elements. For this, thermostats are used:
- Electronic non-programmable ones can be equipped with light indication, power and temperature control buttons, and an LCD display. When the heated floor is heated to a certain level, the thermostat turns off the system, and after cooling by 1-2 degrees, it turns it on again.
- Electronic programmable can be configured according to your schedule. Some have factory programs, for example: five days, six days, work throughout the week. The presence of a programmer is an opportunity to save electricity by automatically turning off on certain days / hours of the week. Implemented protection against childish pranks.
A separate category is thermostats for smart home. In such a device, advanced iron. The board has a miniature CPU, flash memory, RAM. The thermostat receives information not only from the floor heating sensor, but also reacts to the room temperature and the signals that the user sends from the smartphone.
When choosing a thermostat, consider its maximum power. Usually it is 3.5 kW. In the case of arranging a warm floor over a large area, it may be necessary to install several thermostats or one 2-zone thermostat. If you install underfloor heating in the bedroom and bathroom, then each room will have its own regulator. This approach is logical in terms of ease of installation and ensuring an optimal microclimate in both rooms.
According to the method of installation in the room, thermostats, by analogy with sockets, are divided into built-in and overhead. Consider the steps for connecting a warm floor to a built-in thermostat:
- The place for the regulator is determined where it is convenient to connect to the wiring of the apartment, as an option, near the outlet.
- Drill a recess in the wall for the mounting box. The phase and zero of the mains are brought into it, as well as the cable of the temperature sensor.
- Connect the regulator, fixing the wires in the sockets according to the manufacturer’s diagram. Color coding will help with this.
- Fix the thermostat in the mounting box, close the lid.
Installation of the regulator does not require super knowledge and skills. It is quite possible to deal with this on your own. It is only important to be careful with electricity, connect the device in a de-energized apartment.
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Connection without thermostat
When arranging underfloor heating, it is difficult to do without a thermostat. Hot lining is unpleasant to step on. In addition, due to overheating, the cable may fail, the floor covering may become unusable. Yes, and extra kilowatts can result in a significant amount in the receipt for electricity. So why is the Internet full of search queries about connecting a warm floor without any thermostats? Some are confused by the device cover on the wall. The thermostat panel looks neat, but it can also spoil the look of a tiled bathroom.
There is one solution to this – installing a thermostat on a DIN rail. This is the third category of devices in the gradation according to the type of installation. It is less in demand than built-in and overhead thermostats, but sometimes it is in great demand. The problem associated with this method of installation is the distance from the warm floor to the electrical panel:
- When laying the wiring, the walls are ditched, and when repairs have already been completed in other rooms, it is problematic to do this: it’s a pity to screw up the elegant lining.
- Another disadvantage is that not all apartments have automatic fuses. There is enough eccentricity in old high-rise buildings with wiring. It happens that one shield is installed for several apartments. Some residents have to periodically visit the neighboring vestibule.
The rest of the DIN-rail installation justifies itself. The thermostat is similar in size to a 2-pole machine. The kit includes a temperature sensor with a cable about 2 meters long. This is hardly enough to reach the warm floor, but it is possible to extend the cable up to 50 meters. You just have to buy a conductor of a suitable section. You will also need to lengthen the power cable of the underfloor heating.
A remote thermostat is connected by analogy with a room thermostat. You will also need to fix the wires in the sockets according to the manufacturer’s scheme. Remote thermostats are available on mechanics, electronics and programmable, with or without a display. In electronic models, using the buttons, you can set the maximum cable heating and hysteresis – the temperature range of the regulator, which is 1-2 degrees.
Shops sell models of Ukrainian and foreign manufacturers. An imported European-assembled thermostat can cost several times more than a Ukrainian one with similar functionality.
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Infrared warm floor: connection rules
If you need to insulate a large living room, enthusiasm can disappear from the mere thought of pouring a screed. However, there is a technology of dry insulation using a conductive film. It is mounted in dry rooms under laminate, linoleum and other types of light cladding.
- Prepare the grounds. The old floor covering is removed. If necessary, pits and cracks on the base are covered.
- They mount the insulation, which the manufacturer carefully put in a box with a warm floor.
- Plan the distribution of heating elements, and cut the films. You need to plan before you buy. On sale there are films up to 100 cm wide, up to 12 meters long. When choosing, they proceed from the area and geometry of the room, they try to have fewer cuts. The areas on which heavy furniture will stand are not insulated, since the film floor is not designed for heavy loads. Films can be cut between the contact lines or along the strips intended for this purpose, which come with a certain step. The film floor is cut with scissors.
- As a sample, contacts are probably already mounted on one side. For the first sheet, it remains only to isolate the ends, leaving the terminals open.
- Clamps are mounted to copper conductors on one side of each sheet. For this you will need pliers. Each sheet will take 2 contact clips.
- The sheets are fixed to the insulation, for example, with adhesive tape. The distance between them is 1 cm.
- The strips of thermal film are connected in a parallel way: the left terminal – to the left, the right – to the right. The kit may have a red and black wire for this. The ends of the wires are freed from insulation (a stripper will help), and then inserted into the contact clips and crimped with pliers. Clamps on both sides are closed with bituminous insulation.
- So that nothing protrudes, small rectangular pieces of insulation are cut out under the contacts. Insulated contact clips are immersed in the resulting voids.
- A temperature sensor is installed under the film. For him, they also make a recess in the insulation.
- Connect the wires from the first sheet and the temperature sensor to the thermostat.
- Check system performance.
- Cover with plastic wrap.
After that, you can lay the laminate. Connecting a warm floor with sophisticated infrared heating is a fairly simple process. Without taking into account the preparation of the base, the work can be done in a couple of hours.
In conclusion, a few mistakes that can ruin everything when laying an electric floor:
- Choosing a low-power cable or saving on length. It is better to buy with a small margin.
- Shortening the heating cable.
- Installation of the coupling is not in the screed. The sleeve connects the hot section of the cable to the cold section. It should be under the screed in a horizontal position.
- Cable bend. The minimum bending radius must be observed.
- Using a metal spatula when laying tiles.
- Turn on the system until the screed is completely hardened. This takes 2-3 weeks.
- As you can see, the simplest technology also has its own characteristics. If you have a friend who has already laid underfloor heating, do not hesitate to consult with him.
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